Sozialanthropologie

[nach 1800; NNG; LAS]- Agrarian Transformations and Social Movements in Latin America and Africa (from the 1960s to the present)

Dienstag, 10.03.2020

In the context of the rise of social science modernization theories of the post-war period, national governments and international organizations in the 1960s and 70s invented various development models for the so-called Third World. In addition to measures designed to strengthen industry, it was mainly the agricultural sector, which should be "modernized" (socialist or capitalist). In the course of the neo-liberal policies of the 1990s, there was again a withdrawal of state institutions from the development debates, while at the same time international corporations were given increased access to natural resources and land (keywords: neo-extractivism, land grabbing, etc.). Approaches to sustainable development in the 1980s within the agricultural sector at state and civil societal level were recognizable - especially in Latin America - the 1990s saw social movements of varying composition and orientation (peasant movement, indigenous movement, etc.) becoming major players in the search for alternative development models (buen vivir, agro-ecological approaches, etc.). Since the 1990s, access to land has no longer been governed by common property – as was the case up to colonial times - but by state and private property and by powerful actors who were increasingly involved in what has come to be called ‘land grabbing’. This term has been extended to cover ‘water’, ‘resource’, ‘green’ and ‘commons’ grabbing in order to describe the multiple methods of accumulation by dispossession (Harvey 2007). In the discussion about alternative models of today the question of the commons, as well as access and governance of land and land-related common pool resources (water, pasture, forest, etc.), is an important aspect in the new discourse on sustainable development and how it should be incorporated within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this seminar, we will look at the three main stages of agricultural sector transformation in Latin America and Africa, from the 1960s-70s (state-directed agrarian reforms and capitalist and socialist modernization programs), through the 1980s and 1990s (state deregulation and social mobilization in the context of neoliberalism) up until the 2000s (between neo-extractivism and alternative development models). The seminar will analyse different models and practices of development and transformation of the agricultural sector in Latin America and Africa through general debates and empirical case studies (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Mali) from a comparative and trans-regional perspective. S. M. Borras, M. Edelman and C. Kay (eds.) (2008): Transnational agrarian movements confronting globalization, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. G. Ismar, J. Mittag (eds.) (2009), ¿"El pueblo unido"? Soziale Bewegungen und politischer Protest in der Geschichte Lateinamerikas, Münster: Westfälisches Dampfboot. Ferguson, J. (2006). Global shadows: Africa in the neoliberal world order. Duke University Press. Peters, P. E. (2013). Land appropriation, surplus people and a battle over visions of agrarian futures in Africa. Journal of Peasant Studies, 40(3), 537-562. Haller, T. (2019). The Different Meanings of Land in the Age of Neoliberalism: Theoretical Reflections on Commons and Resilience Grabbing from a Social Anthropological Perspective. Land, 8(7), 104. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/8/7/104

Dozierende(r): Prof. Dr. Christian Büschges, Prof. Dr. Tobias Haller
10.03.2020:10:15 - 12:00
Ort: 1. UG, F -107, Seminarraum
Unitobler
Lerchenweg 32-36

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